The use of light material is an important means to realize automobile lightening. At present, the body light weight materials are mainly high strength steel, aluminum magnesium alloy, plastic and carbon fiber material. So which of these materials is better, which is better? This article makes a comparison of their performance.
High strength steel: it is made of a small amount of alloying elements on the basis of ordinary carbon steel, and its production cost is similar to that of ordinary carbon steel. However, due to the strengthening effect of alloy elements, the tensile strength is much higher than that of ordinary steel, which is about 210~550MPa. According to the data, if the strength of the steel plate is increased by 40~50MPa, the thickness of the body plate can be reduced by 20%.
Aluminum Alloy: it is a light metal material most widely used cars, density of about 1/3 of the steel, and has good vibration absorbing ability, while in weight loss can significantly improve the collision safety, but the tensile strength was less than that of steel.
Magnesium alloy: the weight of magnesium alloy is very light, the density is about 1.8g/cm^3, it is 75% lighter than steel, and about 33% lighter than that of aluminum. Its tensile strength is 280MPa, its toughness is good, and its shock absorption is strong. In the US car, chassis, internal facilities, external facilities and power transmission system use magnesium alloy parts, but because of cost reasons, they don’t use much.
Plastics: the biggest advantage of plastics is light weight and density generally around 0.9~1.5cm^3, but their tensile strength is low. For example, the tensile strength of ABS is 70-90MPa, which can not be compared with metal.
Carbon fiber: carbon fiber is a new material. Its density is 1.7g/cm^3, tensile strength 3000MPa, elastic modulus 230GPa, and energy absorption, earthquake resistance, friction resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient. By laying design, it can produce automobile parts that meet different performance requirements.
Compared with the above materials, carbon fiber is the most superior, and has a broad prospect in automobile manufacturing.
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