Light weight is one of the key technologies to reduce the energy consumption of train operation. The rail train made of metal is high in strength but high in quality and high in energy consumption. Taking C20FICAS stainless steel metro train as an example, its running time is 150 thousand km, which consumes 540000 GJ energy. According to 5% (27000GJ), it is used to overcome the weight calculation of car body’s bearing structure, for example, if the train mass can be reduced by 30%, it can save energy 27000GJ×, 30%=8100 GJ.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the key point of the new generation of high-speed rail car body selection. It can not only lighten the weight of rail car body, but also improve high-speed running performance, reduce energy consumption, reduce environmental pollution and enhance safety. At present, application of CFRP in railway vehicles in the field of car interior, interior equipment and other non bearing structure parts to body, frame bearing member expansion; development from the apron, and other parts to the large dome structure, roof cab and vehicle body; with metal and composite hybrid structure, a substantial increase the amount of carbon fiber composite materials.
In a subway train, the mass ratio of each part of the vehicle, of which the body of the car body accounts for about 36%, the vehicle equipment is about 29%, and the interior decoration is about 16%. Since there is little space for weight loss in vehicle equipment, the body and interior decoration of the car body have become the focus of light weight. In 2000, the French National Railway Company (SNCF) used carbon fiber composite materials to develop a double decker TGV Trailer. South Korean Academy of Railway Sciences (KRRI) on the basis of TTX tilting train running speed of 180 km/h, the stainless steel reinforced skeleton, side wall and roof made of aluminum honeycomb sandwich, covering a sandwich structure consisting of CFRP, so the total body shell weight was 40% lower than the Aluminum Alloy structure, and body strength, fatigue strength, fire safety and dynamic characteristic of good performance, has been put into commercial operation in 2010.
In 2011, the South Korean Academy of Railways (KRRI) developed a CFRP bogie frame with a mass of 635 kg, about 30% less than the quality of a steel frame. By the Japan Railway Technical Research Institute (JRTI) and the joint development of the East Japan passenger Rail Corp CFRP high-speed train roof, each carriage to reduce the quality of a 500 kg, 300, September 2014, Japan’s Kawasaki heavy industries CFRP frame side beam, its quality is about 40% less than the metal beam. This shows the advantages of the light weight of the train.
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