The brittleness of ordinary carbon – graphite products is the biggest weakness of carbon materials. For many years, extensive research has been carried out to improve the flexibility and mechanical strength of carbon products. Carbon fiber and its composites developed since the early 1960s have received increasing attention due to their high specific strength and specific stiffness.
Carbon fiber system is made of natural fiber or artificial fiber under certain conditions by processing and carbonization. If the composite is made, the carbon fiber will have a series of surface treatments. As a result of high carbon content of polyacrylonitrile synthetic fiber, it is widely used as raw material in industry. Firstly, the general raw material silk textile machinery will tow the whole roll, or pull into non woof cloth. In order to improve the strength and modulus of carbon fiber, pre oxidation is usually done before carbonization, and pre oxidation is carried out in a pre oxidation furnace at 210-230 degree high temperature. Preoxidation can accelerate the polyacrylonitrile molecules to form the aromatic structure of the ring chain, so that the molecules are firmly combined together. Then carbonization is carried out in non oxidizing air paper at 1000-1100 degree temperature. If we want to get graphitized fiber at last, we need to further graphitization at 2500-3000 degrees.
Carbon fiber, like common carbon – graphite products, has excellent heat resistance and corrosion resistance, but thermal conductivity keeps the characteristics of raw material fiber and is relatively low. Therefore, carbon fiber or carbon felt is often used as a thermal shielding material for induction furnace and resistance furnace. The graphitized fiber has high thermal conductivity. As a heating element, it can be used in a vacuum or inert gas furnace for 2500 degrees. The graphitized fiber is woven into graphite yarns, which are impregnated by polytetrafluoroethylene and used for transporting chemical materials of corrosive medium. The sealing is not only good, but also has long service life.
Carbon fiber composites consist of carbon fiber / resin, carbon fiber / metal, carbon fiber / carbon and other products, of which carbon fiber reinforced resin is the most widely used composite material. The specific strength of glass fiber is similar to that of carbon fiber, but it is much lower than the stiffness. Obviously, carbon fiber / resin composites have better performance than FRP. At present, carbon fiber composites have been widely applied in the aviation industry, and they are also widely used in the automotive industry and the atomic energy industry. The use of this material with high specific strength and high specific stiffness and excellent corrosion resistance, is used as a high-speed rotary chemical mechanical parts such as centrifuge, pump impeller or pressure vessel has good application prospect.
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