As we all know, so far there has been no solvent in the world to dissolve carbon. It is also difficult to melt carbon into liquid. Carbon is heated to more than 400 centigrade in the air, and it will gradually oxidize and burn. Only under the pressure of 100 atmospheric pressure and heated to more than 3600 degrees in the inert gas, can the carbon become a liquid. Therefore, the method of making carbon fiber can not be used in general synthetic fiber industry to dissolve or melt spinning, but only by using &ldquo and carbonizing &rdquo.
First, let’s talk about polyacrylonitrile carbon fiber. Its manufacture should be made of our common acrylic fiber as raw material. Before carbonization, we need to heat it to 250 degrees or so before pre oxidation, so that polyacrylonitrile chain molecules become highly stable trapezoidal molecules. Then, the black preoxidized wire is carbonized under nitrogen protection, so that the carbon main chain in the whole molecule is not easy to break. The high strength &lsquo with carbon content of about 90% can be obtained by heating to about 1500 C, and carbon fiber &rdquo.
If the viscose filament is used as the raw material, the viscose carbon fiber can be made. The viscose filament is the rayon that we usually say. Rayon is mainly made up of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms. When heated in an inert gas such as nitrogen, the oxygen and hydrogen in the rayon are turned into water molecules. If it is heated to more than 1000 degrees C, the carbon atoms are almost left in the fiber. However, the efficiency of carbon fiber production at such a high temperature is low, and the strength and modulus are not ideal.
In recent years, with the development of science and technology, it is found that oil bitumen is processed to melt into fine wire, and it can be made into asphalt fiber. The fiber has high carbon content, and carbon fiber can be made by carbonization after treatment. In these three kinds of carbon fibers, the asphalt carbon fiber and viscose carbon fiber are less used, and now the carbon fiber is mostly made of polyacrylonitrile.
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