Carbon fiber composites have the characteristics of light weight, high strength and high modulus of elasticity. It can reduce the weight of the traditional aluminum alloy structure by 30%. It has great contribution to the performance improvement of weapons and equipment. It is widely used in the manufacture of aircraft airframe, engine, missile shell and so on. Now the ratio of carbon fiber composites for F-22 and F-35 fighters in the United States is 24% and 36% respectively, which makes the fighter have the characteristics of ultra high sonic cruise, ultra sight distance operations, high mobility and stealth, and the ratio of carbon fiber composite material of new large-scale civil aircraft represented by A350 and Boeing 787 is more than 50%. . It shows how important carbon fiber is to a country.
In the early 1980s, high performance and ultra-high performance carbon fibers were known as “black gold”. However, its production process is complex, and the key equipment such as spinning equipment, oxidation furnace, carbonization furnace and graphitization furnace has high technical threshold, so it is difficult to design and manufacture.
The shell of American JASSM cruise missile is made of carbon fiber.
The backwardness of the material processing technology has been a serious constraint on the development of high-end manufacturing in China. Carbon fiber is a new material for both military and civilian use. It is a key technology intensive and sensitive material. It has been strictly embargo and technical blockade in the western countries, led by Toray, Japan.
China began its research on carbon fibers in 1960s and began to study high-strength carbon fibers in 80s. Although some achievements have been achieved, progress has been slow. The core technology and key equipment were monopolized by Japan, the United States and Western European countries for a long time, making it unreasonably pressed for decades to lag behind advanced technology in this field. The United States and Japan also hope that China will never produce enough products that meet the higher requirements, and have always reached the goal of restricting China’s entry into a more advanced manufacturing competition and stifling China’s military scientific and technological progress.
However, in 2008, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, after thousands of repeated trials, has now mastered the key technology for the production of core equipment. More than 98% of the engineering production equipment is independent research and development design and domestic manufacture, and all the key equipment are made domestically.
Now China has achieved T300, T700 and T800 grade engineering stabilization, breaking the international monopoly of high performance carbon fiber technology. And passed the certification of military products, weapons and equipment quality management system and other certification in the future. In the future, fighter 20, UAV and so on will be widely used in carbon fiber technology, and the PLA’s new generation of long-range bombers will also develop rapidly.
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